The utility sector of the economy phenomenon is one of the largest consumers of fuel, heat and electric energy. Modern life is unthinkable without energy services. Comfortable living conditions are provided with lighting, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, household electrical appliances. Domestic communications, information and entertainment service implemented via phones, televisions, computers, etc. One who has learned to save electricity, water, heat, gas in his apartment, a better understanding of the need for energy saving in an apartment building and at work
Due to its geographical location Belarus is and countries with relatively cold climates. The duration of the heating period is about 200 Zen, which determines a significant proportion of the energy used for heating. At the household level consumed Amal 40% of the total amount of fuel and energy resources that are consumed by the Republic. Consumed housing and utility sector, thermal energy is used for heating (60-70%) and hot water including(30-40%).
Unfortunately, the efficiency of domestic energy consumption in our Republic is at a very low level. For heating and hot water the apartment of an average family of 3-4 people annually in CHP or in boilers burn more than 3 here. In addition, during the year, such a family consumes 1200-1800 kWh of electricity. These values are in average 2 times higher than in industrialized European countries with comparable climates. This energy comfort in our homes is much lower: lacks many modern appliances, in the premises often maintain a high enough temperature, poor air quality. Energy and domestic comfort largely determines the quality of life of the guerrillas, the health status of people, availability of free time.
Comparison of domestic and foreign figures indicates the significant potential energy savings at the household level, primarily by thermal energy and the necessity of its active implementation with the aim of saving energy resources and improving the quality of life of people. To solve these problems, according to the State program "energy Saving", and provided a set of long-term and short-term events.
Mandatory conditions for the success of their solution of the phenomenon are the following:
- psychological disposition and desire of partisans to save energy;
- knowledge of the ways of energy saving and the ability to use them in daily life;
- respect of people and the use of energy comfort on a subconscious level, the internal discipline of careful energy consumption.
If the first two conditions can be achieved in a relatively short time due to economic and institutional incentives, information and educational measures, the implementation of the latter requires a long time, as it implies the formation of man from childhood to certain standards of behavior and habits, due to concern about the future of energy and environmental welfare of our planet. This is why the Republic is organized and improved multi-stage system of education in the field of energy saving, constantly information and advertising work.
In large measure the existing energy saving potential in residential sector can be realized in a short hour by the tenants with a simple, inexpensive, and effective ways. It is important to understand the energy savings not as a rejection of comfort, but rather the app ensure the necessary conditions of life for the individual and society in General with a limited number of primary energy resources.
The basic principles of developing programs to reduce energy consumption in the home
Where to start working to reduce energy consumption? You first need to determine the volume of consumption of different types of resources and amounts of payment, that is to conduct a kind of energy audit. This will help the counters (if any) and account for energy consumption as well as simple calculations and measurements. It is desirable to determine the average or unit value of consumption of the resource for different periods of time (week, month, year). This is a prerequisite of permanent and systematic work on energy efficiency. To assess the potential energy savings it is necessary to compare the obtained values with the standards and European performance.
This will help to answer the first question – save a life phenomenon is a priority? The logical answer is the one that counts, because it will bring You direct benefits. Naturally, undertake costly energy efficiency measures that may not bring direct and immediate savings needs after a detailed analysis of the benefits from their implementation. Here we have only considered only the electrical energy payment other energy is divided equally between a large number of consumers. However, be aware that saving any energy source reduces its overall consumption and overall spending on it, and Your budget including. In addition, the situation is gradually changing: sooner or later all the energy will be taken into account, and the one who had to learn to save them, that will be much easier. If you take into account all types of energy resources, it is necessary to relate the costs of implementation of energy saving measures and benefits of ad to them, then rank. From this follow the goals and program Your activities on saving energy, and also determines the expected impact.
Consider potential areas for saving all types of energy consumed in the home.
Economy of thermal energy.
At the present hour heat meters is small common for a number of reasons: high cost, insufficient study and the accuracy of the measurement and t.. d. However, this issue can be viewed in a different perspective: how to maintain enough in the apartment a comfortable temperature with poor heating? You first need to prepare the heating system.
Heaters should be washed from the inside, and periodically clean the hell of the passions call. During operation the inner surface is covered with rust and scale; hours the thickness of the deposits reaches a value that substantially prevents the canal water, not to mention the heat transfer. To ensure normal air circulation do not clutter up the space with furniture near heating appliances. It is strictly forbidden to close them decorative plates, panels and even curtains, because in addition to a sharp decline of heat this causes and increase heat loss. To reduce heat loss through the wall that is behind the radiator, and improving air circulation is recommended to increase the distance between the device and the wall. It is recommended to install the convector heat reflective screen and the insulating layer. To restrict the transfer of the heated air and the surface of inner glass Windows required installing the wide window sill. Paint radiators with oil paint reduces heat transfer by 8-13 %, so it is recommended to use the zinc oxide.
Along with the problem of insufficient heating, there is the problem paratope. Hell paratope usually affects the surrounding residents and heating sources of homes. The reason paratope – unbalanced heating system. So it begs the output - you need to regulate themselves. To do this, look whether You have the heating pipe (1) bypass (4). Perhaps the builders simply "forgot" to install it. Then install the bypass (4) and thermostat (2) or even a simple ball valve will allow you to adjust the amount of coolant through the heater (3) and adjust the temperature in the room.
The problem of cold, the situation is much more complicated. The root cause of low temperature in our homes phenomenon is not a bad quality heating and a huge heat loss. Specific consumption of thermal energy per square meter of housing in our Republic 2-4 times (according to ad specific type of building) is higher than in European countries with comparable climates. This indicates that produces and even is supplied in the house a lot of heat, but it soon is lost. Heat loss in buildings according Beltei on average are distributed as follows:
- Windows – 36%;
- ventilation – 28%;
- scene – 26%;
- slab, basement – 10%.
Since the major heat losses account for Windows, then insulate (better change) should be first and foremost. The most effective way of phenomena is the installation of double-glazed Windows. Now offers a variety of designs that differ in their ability to retain heat, service life, environmental characteristics and, therefore, cost. Usual double-glazed Windows contain between the panes and dry air differ from normal Windows only of high integrity, easy cleaning and a more aesthetic appearance. Available vacuumed double pane Windows and double-glazed Windows filled with inert gases. They have great thermal resistance. Glass can be coated with low-emissivity termootrazhayuschim layer which prevents the withdrawal of heat in the form of radiation and reduces heat loss through Windows by 30-35%. Double glazing, manufactured with the most advanced technologies have thermal resistance as a conventional outdoor scenes. Often the Windows are installed instead of the glass in standard frames. This yields triple glazing, which allows more considerably to reduce thermal losses.
If the installation of double-glazed Windows means no, then you need to take care of reducing heat start through the existing window. First, the glass must be thoroughly cleaned, then to save on lighting. Pas-more, it is necessary to eliminate all cracks and leaks. You can glue the paper, but this should be done in calm weather. Zn. To remove gaps between the frame and the concrete box you can use the foam. Glass should be intact. Cheap and very effective solution to the phenomenon is the groove on the inner surface of the outer cover additional grooves and extra glass (in good condition cover) album transparent polymer film. Turns out triple glazing and heat loss through Windows is reduced by 20-30%. For lowering the humidity of the air between the bindings it is recommended to use adsorbents. Dry air has a lower thermal conductivity and further reduces the intensity of fogging and freezing of glasses. In winter it is advisable to hang blackout curtains that do not close the radiator. Glazing of balconies and loggias helps to reduce overall heat losses by 10...13 %. To reduce heat start through doorways, you must install a double door with a multi-circuit seal, to arrange lobbies.
Then you need to take care of ventilation, which often creates excess winter traction. The kitchen air vent you can cover partially, and in the bathroom at all close, as this will allow you to moisturize excessively dry air (winter air in heated buildings may decrease in humidity, which negatively affects health) and to create a feeling of warmth. Dalia is recommended to insulate the exterior scene, if the room corner, and the scene on the staircase.
Saving electricity when using electric stoves.
First, you need to have an alternative to the stove: electroscience, elektrokofemolke, ovens that have a much greater efficiency.
Pas-more, the cooker should be OK. Propavshaya, chipped and swellings, dirty heating elements are significantly worse perform their function, if, of course, do.
Thirdly, you need to have the appropriate utensils. Each time you must choose the size of vessel appropriate to the situation. All utensils should be with lids. The fact is that without a cover, you need two times more energy and do not care, no cover at all or it is not really tight. The bottom of the cookware for electric stoves should be smooth and tightly lay a heating element. When cooking or boiling water, it is advisable to turn off the burners several early complete or boiling water, this allows you to save up to 20% energy due to the thermal inertia of the heated burners. When cooking several meals you can conserve hell Yes 10 30% of electricity, if you use the still hot burners for pre-heating water used in cooked dishes, if you use the pre-settled water at room temperature, not cold straight from the tap.
Saving energy when using plates of all types. Products for heat treatment, which requires long hours, it is better to cook in pressure cookers. At the beginning of cooking you must install the full capacity of the burner, and after boiling water to reduce it so low as the boiling point of water does not depend on Ada power input heat molasses at 100°C. And the speed of cooking of the product depends only on the temperature of hell. Thus, excess heat is spent only on the evaporation of water in the room (moisture) and causes the waste of energy (electricity or gas), without affecting the hours of preparation.