Saving energy and improving energy efficiency

energy saving and energy efficiency

The amount of energy that modern society consumes is increasing daily. Improving the energy efficiency of multiple apartment buildings (MKB) is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. The maximum energy saving effect can be achieved through joint efforts by the State, administrators and homeowners.

What is efficiency and energy savings

Current trends in energy conservation are driving innovation in energy conservation. According to Federal Law No. 261, signed on November 23, 2009, energy efficiency is the relationship between the benefits obtained from the use of resources and the costs necessary to obtain them.

Energy saving is a set of measures aimed at efficiency and savings in the use of energy resources. The main energy efficiency indicators for residential buildings with several apartments must meet the requirements of the applicable legislation in this area.

Energy efficiency legislation for residential buildings

Actions to improve the energy efficiency of buildings are governed by the following regulations:

  1. Ordinance of the Ministry of Economic Development No. 61, of February 17, 2010, which approved an approximate sequence of actions aimed at improving energy efficiency
  2. Order of the Ministry of Construction No. 98, of February 15, 2017, which approved a list of actions to promote energy conservation and more efficient use of resources in apartment buildings

These orders define a list of actions to improve the energy efficiency of an apartment building. Order no. 98 specifies the principle of attributing energy efficiency classes to apartment buildings. It determines the rationale for spending the necessary resources to maintain the installation. Together, the two documents make it possible to define a list of energy saving measures, distributing them by cost level and type of resources.

Energy saving measures, according to the Ministry of Construction Order No. 98

The energy saving program recommended by the Ministry of Construction and Housing and Utilities can be broken down by the types of resources used.

The result of the activities carried out in the first place should give the greatest effect. When all priority requirements for energy efficiency are met in the home, the second stage of activities is carried out. Its implementation is also very important. The order of activities is determined for technical and financial reasons.

It is proposed to implement the following measures to improve the energy efficiency of buildings.

Heating system and hot water supply

First, the following activities are carried out in the hot and cold water supply system:

  • installation of balancing valves
  • balancing of the heating system
  • washing heating tubes
  • installation of meters to measure hot water and heat consumption at home and in each apartment

Second, they perform:

  • installation of an individual heating point
  • installation of the heat exchanger
  • installation of a system designed to automatically control heating and hot water
  • tube replacement
  • replacement of reinforcement
  • Thermal insulation of pipes in basements and attics, as well as in common areas
  • installation of valves for thermoregulation in heating devices
  • installation of shut-off valves
  • installation and modernization of pumps designed to provide water recirculation in hot water supply systems

Power supply and lighting system

First, they perform:

  • installation of common electricity meters for houses and apartments
  • installation of energy saving lamps in places for general use

Second, they perform:

  • dimming setting in automatic mode
  • replacement of electric motors; installing drives to provide frequency control

Doors, windows, roof and walls

First, they perform:

  • closing, insulating and sealing entrance doors
  • installation of doors and dampers in basements and attics; fence and sealing of windows located in common areas

Second, they perform:

  • installation of heat reflective films on windows
  • installation of low-e glass on sidewalks
  • replacement of old windows and doors with energy efficient ones
  • floor and wall insulation in the basement and attic
  • roof insulation
  • gaskets between panels
  • wall insulation
  • loggia glasses and balconies
  • reduction of losses in the air conditioning and ventilation system due to the installation of air dampers

Preparation of an energy saving program. Estimating costs and savings

The Energy Saving Program is a document based on the requirements of Article 25 of Federal Law No. 261, which describes the principles of conservation and energy efficiency. The energy saving program plan includes the following steps:

  • object data collection
  • express inspection of the building
  • energy audit to determine available potential and energy saving reserves
  • formation of a list of activities in order to increase the MKD's energy consumption class
  • determining the costs necessary to implement the plan
  • calculation of estimated savings in natural and monetary value
  • calculate the payback period for planned energy saving measures
  • selection of funding sources
  • selection of those responsible for the implementation of energy consumption measures under savings
  • development of actions for the implementation of planned activities
  • filling, registering and approving the energy saving program

Program to improve home energy efficiency goals:

  • takes into account the individual characteristics of each MKD
  • meets specific energy conservation needs
  • defines a specific plan to achieve the necessary level of energy efficiency
  • contains methods to rationally reduce energy costs and increase energy efficiency
  • takes into account the available finances
  • makes the most of the building's energy potential

The main result of the implementation of the developed program is the reduction of costs and energy consumption. This allows the savings to be directed to areas of higher priority activity. The return of the developed activities can be determined by one using the calculation:

  • simple payback period
  • discounted refund period
  • profitability index
  • Internal rate of return
  • net present value
  • Life cycle cost analysis

The search for thermal images allows you to assess the energy efficiency class of a building and establish the efficiency of heat and electricity consumption in the house. This research is included in the energy audit complex. Based on the results obtained, an energy certificate for MKD is issued.

Improving the energy efficiency of buildings by apartment owners

Apartment owners can also improve the energy efficiency of buildings. This will lead to energy savings, so the cost of utility bills will decrease. For this it is recommended:

  • insulate doors and window openings
  • install a second front door if the entrance is too cold
  • install heat shields behind the radiators
  • remove the decorative battery grills, if any
  • do not cover radiators with curtains
  • replace old radiators with new ones
  • for varnishing loggias and balconies
  • save electricity
  • save water

The adoption of these measures will save energy costs by 30-40% without special costs without reducing the quality of life.

Who is the artist and where to get the money

The management organization is responsible for maintaining the housing stock. Therefore, she is the executor of the work to improve the energy efficiency of the MKD. The source of financing is the payment made by the residents of the house for the maintenance of the rooms. Part of the work can be carried out under a civil contract.

The management entity has the right to pay the amount of the costs of energy saving measures under the contract-contract for the maintenance of residential installations, having previously concluded an agreement with the owners on the execution of the works.

Capital reparations programs under the Reform Promotion Fund (FRS) program for Housing and Public Services include, without fail, measures to improve energy efficiency and save energy resources in apartment blocks, at the expense offrom the bottom.

Low-cost interventions in apartment buildings

A home operating in energy saving mode consumes much less resources. Energy-saving technologies can be implemented even through low-cost activities. To do this, follow:

  • Wash the heating system
  • insulate sidewalks
  • install door latches
  • examine the heating system
  • install heat shields behind the radiators
  • install heating regulators that allow you to regulate the temperature of the refrigerant according to the temperature of the air in the room

Energy efficiency measures in buildings that require large investments

Technical and large-scale events are expensive, but they improve the energy efficiency of a building much more. This includes:

  • installation of modern windows with high thermal resistance
  • installation of new radiators
  • improvement of individual heating points
  • selection of energy efficient heating boilers
  • automation of the heating boiler loading and operation process
  • isolation of common areas
  • execution of modern thermal insulation in ducts
  • variable speed drive installation in water supply and discharge systems
  • installation of a frequency converter in the pumping equipment
  • replacement of old electrical networks with new ones

The energy efficiency review can significantly reduce energy consumption. In addition, it is recommended to regularly monitor and analyze new modern technologies that increase energy efficiency and, if possible, put them into practice. All of these measures help to significantly save the amount of resources spent on maintaining apartment buildings.