Today, in the modern world, energy conservation is an integral part of the life of a civilized society. This is health care, money saving and life comfort.
But one of the most important (global) characteristics of energy conservation is the protection of the environment from negative influences.
Energy saving concept
The very concept of "energy saving" has been used for a long time. Today, energy savings are characterized by a conceptual apparatus.
Energy saving is based on the energy resource as an energy carrier that can be used in any activity. Energy saving is any activity that aims to reduce the use of energy resources without prejudice to the main function of its use. Despite the extreme precision of the definitions, there is often confusion in the concepts of "energy saving" and "energy efficiency". In this regard, the definition of the latter is given. Energy efficiency is a certain set of characteristics that reflect the relationship between the effect of using energy resources and the costs of energy resources themselves. Efficiency in energy saving is characterized, among other things, by the energy efficiency class, which reflects the degree of utility of a product in terms of energy saving. To determine energy efficiency, special energy surveys are carried out.
Basic principles of energy saving
Now, having defined the basic concepts in this area, it is worth reflecting the basic principles of energy saving:
- Use of alternative energy sources.
- Use of secondary energy resources.
- Application of non-energy-intensive technologies and equipment.
- Take measures for the rational use of available energy resources. Assessment of the economic feasibility of using any energy-saving technologies and solutions.
This list can be attributed to both the principles of energy saving regulation and the main approaches to insulating a private home. The main thing to remember: saving energy involves not only additional ways of obtaining energy, but also activities to save available energy and its rational use.
Alternative energy sources
Today there is a lot of talk about alternative energy sources. As a rule, we mean renewable energy resources. What is renewed infinitely on planet Earth? Of course, this is water, the sun, the wind, the earth's crust. Of course, if you go into details, the solar activity also changes over time, and the surface of the earth's crust gets thinner, but all of that is on the scale of the Universe. We are talking about renewal within the framework of our civilization - in the coming centuries, we believe, the Sun will not go out and the Earth will not leave its orbit.
Thus, the following energy sources are considered alternatives to oil, gas, coal and wood today:
- Energy from the Sun.Solar collectors and batteries are used to use this source. The first are solar cells that directly convert the sun's energy into electrical current. Solar collectors do not convert energy into electrical current, but heat the refrigerant for later use (for example, to heat water in a private home).
- Wind energy.Wind turbines that generate electricity using blades rotated by the force of the wind are very popular in Europe. For example, Germany already obtains a third of its electricity using this renewable energy source.
- Water energy.This is not just about hydroelectric plants. Today there are heat pumps that convert the heat from the water in a lake or pool into stable water heating to heat a home and supply it with hot water.
- Earth energy.The heat pumps described above can also use heat from groundwater or the upper crust for utility purposes. These facilities are very popular, as they do not require a source of water or wind nearby: the coolant can be placed in special tubes under the lawn, for example, or in wells in the garden area.
Secondary energy resources
Energy recycling is one of the basic principles of energy efficiency. Improving the efficiency of the ventilation and air conditioning system used in the building is only possible by recycling the heat from the exhaust air. This process of returning part of the heat that leaves the building (the air is heated in the room from work equipment, people in the room) is called recovery. In this respect, energy saving is the activity of conserving the energy available in the room.
The working principle of the stove is very simple - through certain plates, which conduct heat well, the air removed from the room heats the cold jets that come from the street without mixing with it. As a result, no ice enters, but 2-3 degrees of heated air, which contributes to a more comfortable microclimate in the room, and also saves on heating, due to the increase in temperature in the room due to hot flows. The stoves are of the plate type, as described above, rotating (with a rotating element inside) and with an intermediate thermal conveyor. A large selection of stove manufacturers allows you to choose a device for different installations and customers.
How to use community energy resources rationally?
The rational use of available resources includes not only the installation and operation of energy efficient equipment, but also compliance with a certain regime. Energy saving mode is a way of life in which energy saving is provided at home. If you set a goal - to save on utility bills, you must first install equipment that, by automating energy supply and measurement, will allow you not to miss kilowatts. It must be selected based on the mark that confirms that this device or device provides energy savings. Increasing the energy optimization of the use of resources is only possible with the rational functioning of all equipment. Timely turning off the light in rooms where there are no people, careful attention to the waste of hot water and the correct setting of automatic meters and the consumption of heat and electricity in the house will allow significant results in saving energy and personal money.
What is a passive house?
Energy efficiency and energy savings are inextricably linked to the concept of passive housing construction. It combines a set of energy saving measures that, together, guarantee low energy consumption. The history of passive house technology begins in the city of Darmstadt, where it was developed by physicist Feist. The calculation of the energy balance of the house gave him the idea of creating a building that would not need heating even in winter - a passive house. At that time, in Germany, houses consumed around 200 kWh / m² per year. The passive house, on the other hand, needs only 10 kWh / m² per year to remain adequate and even comfortable for life throughout the year. The basic criterion for a passive house is the creation of a closed building envelope with greater thermal insulation and low thermal conductivity. This is achieved through the use of thermally insulating materials that save energy, excluding the so-called cold bridges (places in the building's surroundings through which the cold penetrates the building: facade locks, window frames).
Evaluation of the efficiency of the application of energy saving technologies
To bring the level of energy consumption of a building closer to that of a passive house, it is necessary to use materials with high heat resistance, modern engineering equipment, renewable and secondary energy, in short, measures that guarantee savingsenergy. At the same time, energy efficiency is calculated based on the costs spent on a particular innovation in the home and the effect that such a decision will have for the owner. First, it is necessary to calculate the impact of the new technology on the production and consumption of a given type of resource. In that case, you need to evaluate:
- The degree of resource savings (the difference between the resources used by energy-efficient and traditional equipment during the billing period when generating the same amount of energy).
- The effect of energy production (the difference or proportion of the volumes of energy generated in a given period by the equipment options compared using the same amount of resources).
These indicators will give us an idea of the need to proceed to calculate the economic effect. It is calculated by comparing the costs spent on buying new equipment (and possibly dismantling old ones) and the revenue from energy savings when replacing an obsolete machine with a more modern one (in a given period of time). This difference will be the effect that the owner will receive after a certain period of time after applying the energy efficiency solution. Typically, installing stoves or solar panels pays off in 3-5 years.
In conclusion, it is important to note that saving energy is not just saving money. First of all, it is the concern for tomorrow, in which our children will live.